ⓘ Computer architecture ..

Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.

Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity. For software programs to save and retrieve stored data, each unit of data must have an address where it can be individually located or else the program will be unable to find and manipulate the data. The number of address spaces available will depend on the underlying address structure and these will usually be limited by the computer architecture being used. Address spaces are created by com ...

Addressing mode

Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit designs. The various addressing modes that are defined in a given instruction set architecture define how the machine language instructions in that architecture identify the operand of each instruction. An addressing mode specifies how to calculate the effective memory address of an operand by using information held in registers and/or constants contained within a machine instruction or elsewhere. In computer programming, addressing modes are primarily of interest to those who write in assemb ...

Aperture (computer memory)

In computing, an aperture is a portion of physical address space that is associated with a particular peripheral device or a memory unit. Apertures may reach external devices such as ROM or RAM chips, or internal memory on the CPU itself. Typically, a memory device attached to a computer accepts addresses starting at zero, and so a system with more than one such device would have ambiguous addressing. To resolve this, the memory logic will contain several aperture selectors, each containing a range selector and an interface to one of the memory devices. The set of selector address ranges o ...

Approximate computing

Approximate computing is a computation technique which returns a possibly inaccurate result rather than a guaranteed accurate result, and can be used for applications where an approximate result is sufficient for its purpose. One example of such situation is for a search engine where no exact answer may exist for a certain search query and hence, many answers may be acceptable. Similarly, occasional dropping of some frames in a video application can go undetected due to perceptual limitations of humans. Approximate computing is based on the observation that in many scenarios, although perf ...

Autonomous decentralized system

An autonomous decentralized system is a decentralized system composed of modules or components that are designed to operate independently but are capable of interacting with each other to meet the overall goal of the system. This design paradigm enables the system to continue to function in the event of component failures. It also enables maintenance and repair to be carried out while the system remains operational. Autonomous decentralized systems have a number of applications including industrial production lines, railway signalling and robotics. The ADS has been recently expanded from c ...