ⓘ Large cardinal
In the mathematical field of set theory, a large cardinal property is a certain kind of property of transfinite cardinal numbers. Cardinals with such properties are, as the name suggests, generally very "large". The proposition that such cardinals exist cannot be proved in the most common axiomatization of set theory, namely ZFC, and such propositions can be viewed as ways of measuring how "much", beyond ZFC, one needs to assume to be able to prove certain desired results. In other words, they can be seen, in Dana Scotts phrase, as quantifying the fact "that if you want more you have to assume more".
There is a rough convention that results provable from ZFC alone may be stated without hypotheses, but that if the proof requires other assumptions such as the existence of large cardinals, these should be stated. Whether this is simply a linguistic convention, or something more, is a controversial point among distinct philosophical schools see Motivations and epistemic status below.
A large cardinal axiom is an axiom stating that there exists a cardinal or perhaps many of them with some specified large cardinal property.
Most working set theorists believe that the large cardinal axioms that are currently being considered are consistent with ZFC. These axioms are strong enough to imply the consistency of ZFC. This has the consequence via Godels second incompleteness theorem that their consistency with ZFC cannot be proven in ZFC assuming ZFC is consistent.
There is no generally agreed precise definition of what a large cardinal property is, though essentially everyone agrees that those in the list of large cardinal properties are large cardinal properties.
1. Partial definition
A necessary condition for a property of cardinal numbers to be a large cardinal property is that the existence of such a cardinal is not known to be inconsistent with ZFC and it has been proven that if ZFC is consistent, then ZFC + "no such cardinal exists" is consistent.
2. Hierarchy of consistency strength
A remarkable observation about large cardinal axioms is that they appear to occur in strict linear order by consistency strength. That is, no exception is known to the following: Given two large cardinal axioms A1 and A2, exactly one of three things happens:
 ZFC+A2 proves that ZFC+A1 is consistent.
 ZFC+A1 proves that ZFC+A2 is consistent; or
 ZFC proves "ZFC+A1 is consistent if and only if ZFC+A2 is consistent";
These are mutually exclusive, unless one of the theories in question is actually inconsistent.
In case 1 we say that A1 and A2 are equiconsistent. In case 2, we say that A1 is consistencywise stronger than A2 vice versa for case 3. If A2 is stronger than A1, then ZFC+A1 cannot prove ZFC+A2 is consistent, even with the additional hypothesis that ZFC+A1 is itself consistent provided of course that it really is. This follows from Godels second incompleteness theorem.
The observation that large cardinal axioms are linearly ordered by consistency strength is just that, an observation, not a theorem. Without an accepted definition of large cardinal property, it is not subject to proof in the ordinary sense. Also, it is not known in every case which of the three cases holds. Saharon Shelah has asked, "s there some theorem explaining this, or is our vision just more uniform than we realize?" Woodin, however, deduces this from the Ωconjecture, the main unsolved problem of his Ωlogic. It is also noteworthy that many combinatorial statements are exactly equiconsistent with some large cardinal rather than, say, being intermediate between them.
The order of consistency strength is not necessarily the same as the order of the size of the smallest witness to a large cardinal axiom. For example, the existence of a huge cardinal is much stronger, in terms of consistency strength, than the existence of a supercompact cardinal, but assuming both exist, the first huge is smaller than the first supercompact.
3. Motivations and epistemic status
Large cardinals are understood in the context of the von Neumann universe V, which is built up by transfinitely iterating the powerset operation, which collects together all subsets of a given set. Typically, models in which large cardinal axioms fail can be seen in some natural way as submodels of those in which the axioms hold. For example, if there is an inaccessible cardinal, then "cutting the universe off" at the height of the first such cardinal yields a universe in which there is no inaccessible cardinal. Or if there is a measurable cardinal, then iterating the definable powerset operation rather than the full one yields Godels constructible universe, L, which does not satisfy the statement "there is a measurable cardinal" even though it contains the measurable cardinal as an ordinal.
Thus, from a certain point of view held by many set theorists especially those inspired by the tradition of the Cabal, large cardinal axioms "say" that we are considering all the sets were "supposed" to be considering, whereas their negations are "restrictive" and say that were considering only some of those sets. Moreover the consequences of large cardinal axioms seem to fall into natural patterns. For these reasons, such set theorists tend to consider large cardinal axioms to have a preferred status among extensions of ZFC, one not shared by axioms of less clear motivation such as Martins axiom or others that they consider intuitively unlikely such as V = L. The hardcore realists in this group would state, more simply, that large cardinal axioms are true.
This point of view is by no means universal among set theorists. Some formalists would assert that standard set theory is by definition the study of the consequences of ZFC, and while they might not be opposed in principle to studying the consequences of other systems, they see no reason to single out large cardinals as preferred. There are also realists who deny that ontological maximalism is a proper motivation, and even believe that large cardinal axioms are false. And finally, there are some who deny that the negations of large cardinal axioms are restrictive, pointing out that for example there can be a transitive set model in L that believes there exists a measurable cardinal, even though L itself does not satisfy that proposition.
 This page includes a list of cardinals with large cardinal properties. It is arranged roughly in order of the consistency strength of the axiom asserting
 cardinal is inaccessible if it cannot be obtained from smaller cardinals by the usual operations of cardinal arithmetic. More precisely, a cardinal κ
 cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality size of sets. The cardinality
 Cardinal number Large cardinal Cardinal bird or Cardinalidae, a family of North and South American birds Cardinalis, genus of cardinal in the family Cardinalidae
 In mathematics, an Erdos cardinal also called a partition cardinal is a certain kind of large cardinal number introduced by Paul Erdos and Andras Hajnal 1958
 Mahlo cardinal is a certain kind of large cardinal number. Mahlo cardinals were first described by Paul Mahlo 1911, 1912, 1913 As with all large cardinals
 In set theory, a strong cardinal is a type of large cardinal It is a weakening of the notion of a supercompact cardinal If λ is any ordinal, κ is λ  strong
 In mathematics, a subcompact cardinal is a certain kind of large cardinal number. A cardinal number κ is subcompact if and only if for every A H κ
 measurable cardinal is a certain kind of large cardinal number. In order to define the concept, one introduces a two  valued measure on a cardinal κ, or more
 In mathematics, a cardinal number κ is called huge if there exists an elementary embedding j : V M from V into a transitive inner model M with critical
 set theory, a Jonsson cardinal named after Bjarni Jonsson is a certain kind of large cardinal number. An uncountable cardinal number κ is said to be
 In mathematics, a Q  indescribable cardinal is a certain kind of large cardinal number that is hard to describe in some language Q. There are many different
Axiom of determinacy 

Berkeley cardinal 
Core model 
Critical point (set theory) 
Extender (set theory) 

Extendible cardinal 
Grothendieck universe 
Huge cardinal 
Indescribable cardinal 
Ineffable cardinal 
Iterable cardinal 
Kunens inconsistency theorem 
Mahlo cardinal 
Measurable cardinal 

Rankintorank 
Reinhardt cardinal 
Remarkable cardinal 
Shelah cardinal 
Shrewd cardinal 
Strong cardinal 
Strongly compact cardinal 
Quasicompact cardinal 
Unfoldable cardinal 
Weakly compact cardinal 
Wholeness axiom 
Woodin cardinal 
Zero sharp 

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