ⓘ Rank-into-rank. In set theory, a branch of mathematics, a rank-into-rank embedding is a large cardinal property defined by one of the following four axioms give ..

                                     

ⓘ Rank-into-rank

In set theory, a branch of mathematics, a rank-into-rank embedding is a large cardinal property defined by one of the following four axioms given in order of increasing consistency strength.

  • Axiom I2: There is a nontrivial elementary embedding of V into a transitive class M that includes V λ where λ is the first fixed point above the critical point.
  • Axiom I1: There is a nontrivial elementary embedding of V λ+1 into itself.
  • Axiom I3: There is a nontrivial elementary embedding of V λ into itself.
  • Axiom I0: There is a nontrivial elementary embedding of LV λ+1 into itself with critical point below λ.

These are essentially the strongest known large cardinal axioms not known to be inconsistent in ZFC; the axiom for Reinhardt cardinals is stronger, but is not consistent with the axiom of choice.

If j is the elementary embedding mentioned in one of these axioms and κ is its critical point, then λ is the limit of j n κ {\displaystyle j^{n}\kappa} as n goes to ω. More generally, if the axiom of choice holds, it is provable that if there is a nontrivial elementary embedding of V α into itself then α is either a limit ordinal of cofinality ω or the successor of such an ordinal.

The axioms I0, I1, I2, and I3 were at first suspected to be inconsistent in ZFC as it was thought possible that Kunens inconsistency theorem that Reinhardt cardinals are inconsistent with the axiom of choice could be extended to them, but this has not yet happened and they are now usually believed to be consistent.

Every I0 cardinal κ speaking here of the critical point of j is an I1 cardinal.

Every I1 cardinal κ sometimes called ω-huge cardinals is an I2 cardinal and has a stationary set of I2 cardinals below it.

Every I2 cardinal κ is an I3 cardinal and has a stationary set of I3 cardinals below it.

Every I3 cardinal κ has another I3 cardinal above it and is an n -huge cardinal for every n

                                     
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