ⓘ List of Apis mellifera subspecies. Apis mellifera macedonica, classified by Ruttner, 1988 - Macedonian honey bee Northern Greece Macedonia and Thrace, North Mac ..

                                     

ⓘ List of Apis mellifera subspecies

  • Apis mellifera macedonica, classified by Ruttner, 1988 - Macedonian honey bee Northern Greece Macedonia and Thrace, North Macedonia. Possibly synonymous with A. m. artemisia Russian steppe honey bee as described by Engel, 1999.
  • Apis mellifera ruttneri, classified by Sheppard, Arias, Grech & Meixner in 1997 - Maltese honey bee the Maltese islands.
  • Apis mellifera adami, classified by Ruttner, 1975 - Cretan honey bee The island of Crete.
  • Apis mellifera siciliana, classified by Grassi, 1881 sicula is a junior synonym - Sicilian honey bee from the Trapani province and the island of Ustica of western Sicily Italy.
  • Apis mellifera artemisia, Engel 1999 - Russian steppes.
  • Apis mellifera iberiensis commonly misspelled as iberica, classified by Engel, 1999 - Spanish honey bee The Iberian Peninsula Spain and Portugal.
  • Apis mellifera ligustica, classified by Spinola, 1806 - Italian honey bee The most commonly kept subspecies in North America, South America and southern Europe. They are kept commercially all over the world. They are very gentle, not very likely to swarm and produce a large surplus of honey. They have few undesirable characteristics. Colonies tend to maintain larger populations through winter, so they require more winter stores or feeding than other temperate zone subspecies. The Italian bee is light-colored and mostly leather-colored, but some strains are golden.
  • Apis mellifera cecropia, classified by Kiesenwetter, 1860 - Greek honey bee Southern Greece.
  • Apis mellifera carnica, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - Carniolan honey bee The Carniola region of Slovenia, the Eastern Alps and the northern Balkans - popular with beekeepers due to its extreme gentleness. The Carniolan honey bee tends to be quite dark in color and the colonies are known to shrink to small populations over winter and build very quickly in spring. It is a mountain bee in its native range and is a good bee for colder climates.
  • Apis mellifera cypria, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - Cyprus honey bee The island of Cyprus - this subspecies has the reputation of being very fierce compared to the Italian subspecies, from which it is isolated by the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Apis mellifera sossimai, classified by Engel, 1999 includes former Apis cerifera Gerstaecker, 1862 - Ukrainian honey bee Ukraine Crimea excepted and northern regions of the Caucasus Mountains.
  • Apis mellifera taurica, Alpatov 1935 - Crimea.
  • Apis mellifera mellifera, classified by Linnaeus, 1758 - European dark honey bee the dark-colored bee of northern Europe, also called the German black honey bee or German honey bee. Domesticated in modern times and taken to North America in colonial times.
  • Apis mellifera caucasia commonly misspelled as caucasica, classified by Pollmann, 1889 - Caucasian honey bee The Central Caucasus.
  • Apis mellifera remipes, classified by Gerstacker, 1862 armeniaca is a junior synonym - Armenian honey bee The Caucasus, Iran, the Caspian Sea.
                                     

1. Subspecies originating in Africa

Several researchers and beekeepers describe a general trait of the African subspecies which is absconding, where the Africanized bee colonies abscond the hive in times when food stores are low, unlike the European honey bee colonies, which tend to die in the hive.

  • Apis mellifera sahariensis, classified by Baldensperger, 1932 - Saharan honey bee The Moroccan desert oases of Northwest Africa. This subspecies faces few predators other than humans and is therefore very gentle. Moreover, because of the low density of nectar-producing vegetation around the oases it colonizes, it forages up to five miles, much farther than subspecies from less arid regions. Other authorities say that while colonies of this species are not much inclined to sting when their hives are opened for inspection, they are, nevertheless, highly nervous.
  • Apis mellifera adansonii, classified by Latreille, 1804 - West African honey bee Nigeria, Burkina Faso.
  • Apis mellifera simensis, classified by Meixner et al, 2011 - Ethiopian honey bee Ethiopia.
  • Apis mellifera litorea, classified by Smith, 1961 - East African coastal honey bee Low elevations of East Africa.
  • Apis mellifera capensis, classified by Eschscholtz, 1822 - Cape honey bee South Africa.
  • Apis mellifera monticola, classified by Smith, 1961 - East African mountain honey bee High altitude mountains at elevation between 1.500 and 3.100 metres of East Africa.
  • Apis mellifera scutellata, classified by Lepeletier, 1836 - East African lowland honey bee Central and East Africa, now as hybrids also in South America, Central America and the southern U.S. In an effort to address concerns by Brazilian beekeepers and to increase honey production in Brazil, Warwick Kerr, a Brazilian geneticist, was asked by Brazilian Federal and State authorities in 1956 to import several pure East African lowland queens from Tanzania to Piracicaba, São Paulo state in the south of Brazil. In a mishap, some queens escaped. The East African lowland queens eventually mated with local European honey bee drones and produced what are now known as Africanized honey bees on the American continent. The intense struggle for survival of honey bees in sub-Saharan Africa is given as the reason that this subspecies is proactive in defending the hive and also more likely to abandon an existing hive and swarm to a more secure location. They direct more of their energies to defensive behaviors and less of their energies to honey storage. East African lowland honey bees are leather-colored and difficult to distinguish by eye from darker strains of Italian honey bees.
  • Apis mellifera jemenitica, classified by Ruttner, 1976 nubica is a junior synonym - Arabian honey bee Somalia, Uganda, Sudan, Yemen.
  • Apis mellifera intermissa, classified by von Buttel-Reepen, 1906; Maa, 1953 major is a junior synonym - Tunisian honey bee Northern part of Africa in the general area of Morocco, Libya and Tunisia. These bees are totally black. They are extremely fierce, but do not attack without provocation. They are industrious and hardy, but have many negative qualities that argue against their being favored in the honey or pollination industry.
  • Apis mellifera unicolor, classified by Latreille, 1804 - Madagascan honey bee Madagascar.
  • Apis mellifera lamarckii, classified by Cockerell, 1906 - Egyptian honey bee The Nile Valley of Egypt and Sudan. This mitotype can also be identified in honey bees from California.
                                     

2. Subspecies of the Middle East and Asia

  • Apis mellifera syriaca, classified by Skorikov, 1929 - Syrian honey bee The Near East and Israel.
  • Apis mellifera meda, classified by Skorikov, 1929 - Persian honey bee Iraq.
  • Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan, Xinyuan honey bee Discovered in 2016 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. This subspecies of Apis mellifera has a range that is the farthest east known.
  • Apis mellifera pomonella, classified by Sheppard & Meixner, 2003 - Tien Shan honey bee Endemic honey bees of the Tien Shan Mountains in Central Asia.
  • Apis mellifera anatoliaca commonly misspelled as anatolica, classified by Maa, 1953 - Anatolian honey bee This subspecies is typified by colonies in the central region of Anatolia in Turkey and Iraq range extends as far east as Armenia. It has many good characteristics, but is rather unpleasant to deal with in and around the hive.
                                     
  • Apis mellifera iberiensis, or the Spanish bee commonly misspelled as iberica is a Western honey bee subspecies native to the Iberian Peninsula. Also
  • Apis mellifera intermissa is an African subspecies of the western honey bee. Previously classified as A.M.intermissa v. Buttel - Reepen a reviewed classification
  • The Macedonian bee Apis mellifera macedonica is a subspecies of the Western honey bee. It is found mainly in Northern Greece, North Macedonia and other
  • The European dark bee Apis mellifera mellifera is a subspecies of the western honey bee, whose original range stretched from west - central Russia through
  • Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a subspecies of the western honey bee Apis mellifera The Italian honey bee is thought to originate
  • honey bee Apis mellifera is the most common of the 7 12 species of honey bees worldwide. The genus name Apis is Latin for bee and mellifera is the Latin
  • species except Apis mellifera are native to that region. Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge Apis florea and Apis andreniformis
  • lineages they are crossings of the Apis mellifera subspecies and are not defined as subspecies in their own right The known subspecies within the lineage A
  • 0 cm 1.2 in in length. Before 1980, Apis dorsata laboriosa was considered to be a subspecies of the widespread Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee, but in
  • animals. There are 29 recognized subspecies of Apis mellifera based largely on geographic variations. All subspecies are cross - fertile. Geographic isolation