ⓘ Outline of energy. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to energy: Energy – in physics, this is an indirectly observed quantity ..


ⓘ Outline of energy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to energy:

Energy – in physics, this is an indirectly observed quantity often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance a length of space, energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert force a pull or a push against an object that is moving along a definite path of certain length.


1. Forms of energy

  • Gravitational energy – potential energy associated with a gravitational field.
  • Mechanical wave – ≥0, a form of mechanical energy propagated by a materials oscillations
  • Potential energy – energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors.
  • Nuclear binding energy – energy that binds nucleons to form the atomic nucleus
  • Magnetic energy – energy from magnetic fields
  • Kinetic energy – ≥0, energy of the motion of a body
  • Elastic energy – energy of deformation of a material or its container exhibiting a restorative force
  • Nuclear potential energy
  • Chemical energy – energy contained in molecules
  • Gravitational energy – energy from gravitational fields
  • Mechanical energy – The sum of usually macroscopic kinetic and potential energies
  • Electrical energy – energy from electric fields
  • Ionization energy – energy that binds an electron to its atom or molecule
  • Rest energy – ≥0 that E=mc² an objects rest mass
  • Radiant energy – ≥0, energy of electromagnetic radiation including light
  • Thermal energy – a microscopic, disordered equivalent of mechanical energy
  • Surface energy
  • Heat – an amount of thermal energy being transferred in a given process in the direction of decreasing temperature
  • Work physics – an amount of energy being energy transfer in a given Process thermodynamic due to displacement in the direction of an applied force

2. Measurement


List of common units for energy. Official or common symbol in brackets after name and exact or approximate value of unit in joule in brackets after description.

SI unit

  • Joule J – the SI-unit for energy. Also called newton meter, watt second, or coulomb volt.

2.1. Measurement Units

List of common units for energy. Official or common symbol in brackets after name and exact or approximate value of unit in joule in brackets after description.


2.2. Measurement Other metric units

  • Calorie cal – equal to the energy need to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius ~4.184 J.
  • erg – unit of energy and mechanical work in the centimetre-gram-second CGS system of units 10 −7 J.
  • Kilowatt-hour kW h – corresponds to one kilowatt of power being used over a period of one hour 3.6 MJ.

2.3. Measurement Imperial or US Customary units

  • Therm thm – unit of heat energy. In the US gas industry it is defined as exactly 100.000 BTU 59 °F. It is approximately the heat equivalent of burning 100 cubic feet 2.8 m 3 of natural gas ~105.5 MJ.
  • Foot-pound ft lbf or ft lbf – unit of mechanical work, or energy, although in scientific fields one commonly uses joule ~1.356 J.
  • British thermal unit BTU – equal to the energy need to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit ~1055 J.

2.4. Measurement Other units

  • Planck energy E P – natural unit of energy common in particle physics ~1.96 × 10 9 J.
  • Electronvolt eV – the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt ~1.60 × 10 −19 J.
  • Tonne of oil equivalent toe – energy unit equal to the energy released when burning one tonne of oil ~42 GJ.
  • Barrel of oil equivalent BOE – energy unit equal to the energy released when burning one barrel 159 litres of oil ~6.12 GJ.


2.5. Measurement Related units and concepts

  • Fill factor – defined as the ratio of the maximum power Vmp x Jmp divided by the short-circuit current Isc and open-circuit voltage Voc in light current density – voltage J-V characteristics of solar cells.
  • Enthalpy
  • Any of various units of energy, such as gigatons of TNT equivalent, gigatons of coal equivalent, gigatons petroleum equivalent.
  • Gigaton – Metric Unit of mass, equal to 1 billion metric tons, 1 trillion kilograms
  • Volt
  • EU energy label
  • Ampere
  • Coulomb
  • Power factor – of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power.
  • Heat
  • Net energy gain
  • Mass-energy equivalence – where mass has an energy equivalence, and energy has a mass equivalence
  • Megawatt
  • Gray unit – symbol: Gy, is the SI unit of energy for the absorbed dose of radiation. One gray is the absorption of one joule of radiation energy by one kilogram of matter. One gray equals 100 rad, an older unit.


3. Energy industry

Energy industry

  • Embodied energy, the sum total of energy expended to deliver a good or service as it travels through the economy
  • Power harvesting
  • Free energy suppression
  • Biosphere
  • Earth Day
  • Energy policy, government policies and plans for energy supply
  • Energy system, an interpretation the energy sector in system terms
  • Energy speculation
  • Renewable energy development
  • World energy resources and consumption
  • Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil – the theory that world oil production will peak or has peaked, and will then rapidly decline, with a corresponding rapid increase in prices.
  • Energy development, development of energy resources - ongoing effort to provide abundant and accessible energy, through knowledge, skills and construction
  • Energy balance
  • List of energy resources, substances like fuels, petroleum products and electricity
  • Primary production
  • Ecology
  • Energy economics, as the foundation of other relationships
  • Energy crisis, the need to conserve energy resources
  • Worldwide energy supply, outline by country/region
  • Energy conservation, tips for conserving energy resources
  • History of perpetual motion machines
  • Ecological energetics
  • Future energy development – Provides a general overview of future energy development.
  • Energy storage, methods commonly used to store energy resources for later use


3.1. Energy industry Energy infrastructure

See especially Category:Electric power and Category:Fuels for a large number of conventional energy related topics.

  • Electricity generation
  • Power station
  • Power supply
  • Power transmission
  • Underground power station
  • Electricity retailing
  • Grid energy storage
  • Liquified natural gas
  • Energy storage
  • Microwave power transmission

3.2. Energy industry Energy applications

  • Hydrogen vehicle
  • Electric vehicle
  • Hybrid vehicle
  • Biofuel
  • Passive solar building design
  • Steam engine
  • Distributed generation

4. History of energy

History of energy

  • History of coal mining
  • History of coal
  • History of the energy industry
  • History of the electric generator
  • History of electromagnetic theory
  • Timeline of the electric motor
  • History of electronic engineering
  • History of the electric motor
  • History of electrical engineering
  • Electricity § History
  • History of electric power transmission
  • History of petroleum
  • History of nuclear power
  • History of the petroleum industry
  • History of hydropower
  • Growth of photovoltaics
  • History of solar cells
  • History of renewable energy
  • History of alternative energy
  • History of sustainability
  • History of wind power
  • History of the steam engine
  • Steam power during the Industrial Revolution


5. Physics of energy

  • Gibbs free energy, a related concept in chemical thermodynamics that incorporates entropy considerations too
  • Radiant energy, energy that is transported by waves
  • Energy
  • Food energy, energy in food that is available
  • Activation energy, explains the differences in the speeds of various chemical reactions
  • Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity, dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons, tidal barrages
  • Exergy
  • Energy density, amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass
  • Elastic energy, which causes or is released by the elastic distortion of a solid or a fluid
  • Binding energy, a concept explaining how the constituents of atoms or molecules are bound together
  • Stress–energy tensor, the density and flux of energy and momentum in space-time; the source of the gravitational field in general relativity
  • Kinetic energy, the form of energy as a consequence of the motion of an object or its constituents
  • Primary energy, energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system.
  • Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work - for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water into reservoirs. Machinery able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter WEC.
  • Energy in Earth science that is responsible for the macroscopic transformations on the planet Earth
  • Energetics, the scientific study of energy flows under transformation
  • Energy in physical cosmology
  • Thermodynamics
  • Green energy
  • Energy conversion, process of converting energy from one form to another
  • Helmholtz free energy, a thermodynamic potential that measures the "useful" work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature, useful for studying explosive chemical reactions
  • Energy signal processing, the inner product of a signal in the time domain
  • Heat
  • Potential energy, the form of energy that is due to position of an object
  • Chemical energetics
  • Energy flow, flow of energy in an ecosystem through food chains
  • Forms of energy, the forms in which energy can be defined
  • Energy transformation, relating to energys changes from one form to another.
  • Rotational energy, part of an objects total kinetic energy due to its rotation
  • Osmotic power, also salinity gradient power or blue energy, the energy available from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water
  • Electricity
  • Dark energy, used to explain some cosmological phenomena
  • Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in motion;Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships
  • Mechanical energy, the potential energy and kinetic energy present in the components of a mechanical system
  • Orders of magnitude energy, list describing various energy levels between 10 −31 joules and 10 70 joules
  • Energy quality, empirical experience of the characteristics of different energy forms as they flow and transform
  • Solar radiation, radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly electromagnetic energy
  • Interaction energy, the contribution to the total energy that is a result of interaction between the objects being considered
  • Bond energy, a measure of the strength of a chemical bond
  • Bioenergetics
  • Internal energy abbreviated E or U, the total kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules and the total potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules.
  • History of energy
  • Ionization energy IE, the energy required to strip an atom of an electron
  • Negative energy
  • Nuclear energy, energy that is the consequence of decomposition or combination of atomic nuclei
  • Energy density spectrum, relating to the distribution of signal energy over frequencies.
  • Perpetual motion


5.1. Physics of energy Allegorical and esoteric

  • Energy esotericism, invoked by spiritualists for alternative modes of healing the human body as well as a spirit that permeates all of reality.
  • Water-fuelled car, powering a car using water as fuel.
  • Orgone, Wilhelm Reich discovered this energy and tried to use it to cure various physical ailments and control the weather.
  • Bubble fusion, also known as Sonofusion, energy from acoustic collapse of bubbles.
  • Cold fusion, nuclear fusion at conditions close to room temperature.
  • Vitalism, often referred to as "energy"
  • Qi, a concept from Oriental medicine that is sometimes translated as "energy" in the West.
  • Bioenergetic analysis, body-oriented Reichian psychotherapy

6. Politics

Energy issues

  • Greasestock, American showcase of vehicles and technologies powered by alternative energy
  • Strategic Petroleum Reserve disambiguation
  • Peak Oil
  • Fuel poverty
  • Low-carbon economy
  • Soft energy path – an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists
  • Environmental concerns with electricity generation
  • 2000 Watt society


  • Energy and Environmental Security Initiative
  • Energy policy – an introductory article

Regional and national

  • Energy law – overview of many energy laws from various countries and states
  • New York energy law
  • United Kingdom
  • Energy policy of the United Kingdom
  • Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom
  • Energy Tax Act – United States energy-related legislation. See also: Category:United States federal energy legislation

7. Economics

Energy economics

Energy companies

  • Enercon GmbH – Company based in Germany that operates in the wind turbine industry. One of the biggest producers in the world.
  • Sasol
  • United States Enrichment Corporation – contracts with the United States Department of Energy to produce enriched uranium.
  • Saudi Aramco
  • Exxon Mobil

Industry associations

  • OPEC – Organization of Petroleum-exporting Countries
  • World LP Gas Association – WLPGA
  • CAPP – Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
  • IEA – International Energy Agency

8. Innovators

  • Nikolaus Otto – internal combustion engine
  • Georges Imbert – wood gas
  • Robert Stirling – Stirling engine external combustion
  • Moritz von Jacobi
  • Alessandro Volta
  • Charles Kettering
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Georges Leclanche – battery
  • Nikola Tesla
  • John Frederic Daniell – Daniell cell
  • Farrington Daniels – solar energy
  • Rudolf Diesel – compression ignition internal combustion engine
  • James Watt – steam engine with separate condensor

9. Lists

  • List of energy storage projects
  • List of notable renewable energy organizations
  • List of wind turbine manufacturers
  • List of books about energy issues
  • List of large wind farms
  • List of solar thermal power stations
  • Index of wave articles
  • List of photovoltaics companies
  • List of renewable energy topics by country
  • List of energy abbreviations
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