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Fringe theory

A fringe theory is an idea or viewpoint which differs from the accepted scholarship in its field. Fringe theories include the models and proposals of fringe science, as well as similar ideas in other areas of scholarship, such as the humanities. ...

Gnosiology

Gnosiology, a term of 18th-century aesthetics, is "the philosophy of knowledge and cognition". In Soviet and post-Soviet philosophy, the word is often used as a synonym for epistemology. The term is currently used in regard to Eastern Christianity.

Godel's incompleteness theorems

Godels incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system capable of modelling basic arithmetic. These results, published by Kurt Godel in 1931, are important ...

Guessing

A guess is a swift conclusion drawn from data directly at hand, and held as probable or tentative, while the person making the guess admittedly lacks material for a greater degree of certainty. A guess is also an unstable answer, as it is "always ...

Hypotheses non fingo

Hypotheses non fingo is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay, "General Scholium", which was appended to the second edition of the Principia. Here is a modern translation published 1999 of the passage containing this famous remark: I h ...

I know it when I see it

The phrase I know it when I see it is a colloquial expression by which a speaker attempts to categorize an observable fact or event, although the category is subjective or lacks clearly defined parameters. The phrase was used in 1964 by United St ...

Incorrigibility

In philosophy, incorrigibility is a property of a philosophical proposition, which implies that it is necessarily true simply by virtue of being believed. A common example of such a proposition is Rene Descartes "cogito ergo sum". Johnathan Harri ...

Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion; this is in contrast to deductive reasoning. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the tru ...

Information source

Information source may refer to: Information source mathematics, a kind of sequence of random variables Source text, a text sometimes oral from which information or ideas are derived

International Wittgenstein Symposium

The International Wittgenstein Symposium is an international conference dedicated to the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein and its relationship to philosophy and science. It is sponsored by the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society.

Intersubjective verifiability

Intersubjective verifiability is the capacity of a concept to be readily and accurately communicated between different individuals, and to be reproduced under varying circumstances for the purposes of verification. It is a core principle of empir ...

Intersubjectivity

Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people. It is usually used in contrast to solipsistic individual experience, emphasizing our inherently social being.

Intuition (Bergson)

Intuition is the philosophical method of French philosopher Henri Bergson. In An Introduction to Metaphysics, Bergson introduces two ways in which an object can be known: absolutely and relatively. Pertaining to each mode of knowledge is a method ...

Intuitionism

In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism, is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans rather than the discovery of fundamental principles claimed t ...

Laplace's demon

In the history of science, Laplaces demon was the first published articulation of causal or scientific determinism, by Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1814. According to determinism, if someone knows the precise location and momentum of every atom in the ...

Levels of adequacy

In his seminal work Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Noam Chomsky introduces a hierarchy of levels of adequacy for evaluating grammars and metagrammars. These levels constitute a taxonomy of theories a grammar of a natural language being an examp ...

Lottery paradox

Henry E. Kyburg, Jr.s lottery paradox arises from considering a fair 1000-ticket lottery that has exactly one winning ticket. If this much is known about the execution of the lottery it is therefore rational to accept that some ticket will win. S ...

Map–territory relation

The map–territory relation describes the relationship between an object and a representation of that object, as in the relation between a geographical territory and a map of it. Polish-American scientist and philosopher Alfred Korzybski remarked ...

Mathematicism

Mathematicism is any opinion, viewpoint, school of thought, or philosophy that states that everything can be described/defined/modelled ultimately by mathematics, or that the universe and reality are fundamentally/fully/only mathematical, i.e. th ...

Meno's slave

Menos slave is a character in the Socratic dialogue Meno, which was written by Plato. Socrates demonstrates his method of questioning and recollection by questioning a slave boy who works in Menos house. This house slave is ignorant of geometry. ...

Meta

In Greek, the prefix meta- is generally less esoteric than in English; Greek meta- is equivalent to the Latin words post- or ad-. The use of the prefix in this sense occurs occasionally in scientific English terms derived from Greek. For example: ...

Meta-epistemology

Meta-epistemology is a metaphilosophical study of the subject, matter, methods and aims of epistemology and of approaches to understanding and structuring our knowledge of knowledge itself. In epistemology, there are two basic meta-epistemologica ...

Metaphor in philosophy

Metaphor, the description of one thing as something else, has become of interest in recent decades to both analytic philosophy and continental philosophy, but for different reasons.

Metascience

Metascience is the use of scientific methodology to study science itself. Metascience seeks to increase the quality of scientific research while reducing waste. It is also known as research on research and the science of science ", as it uses res ...

Metatheory

A metatheory or meta-theory is a theory whose subject matter is some theory. All fields of research share some meta-theory, regardless whether this is explicit or correct. In a more restricted and specific sense, in mathematics and mathematical l ...

Methodical culturalism

Methodical culturalism is a philosophical approach developed by Peter Janich and his pupils. Its core statement is that science is not developed from purely theoretical considerations, but as a development of everyday, proto-scientific human beha ...

Mind extension

In recent years several philosophers have broached the idea that mind should not be considered to be something which is just in the head but in various ways can be spread out onto the world. This is a materialist rather than spiritualist notion, ...

Misotheism

Misotheism is the "hatred of God" or "hatred of the gods". In some varieties of polytheism, it was considered possible to inflict punishment on gods by ceasing to worship them. Thus, Hrafnkell, protagonist of the eponymous Hrafnkels saga set in t ...

Moore's paradox

Moores paradox concerns the apparent absurdity involved in asserting a first-person present-tense sentence such as, "Its raining, but I dont believe that it is raining" or "Its raining but I believe that it is not raining." The first author to no ...

Mundane reason

The basic premise of the concept of mundane reason is that the standard assumptions about reality that people typically make as they go about day to day, including the very fact that they experience their reality as perfectly natural, are actuall ...

Music, When Soft Voices Die

Music, When Soft Voices Die is a major poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley, written in 1821 and first published in Posthumous Poems of Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1824 in London by John and Henry L. Hunt with a preface by Mary Shelley. The poem is one of th ...

Neuroepistemology

Neuroepistemology is an empirical approach to epistemology - the study of knowledge in a general, philosophical sense - which is informed by modern neuroscience, especially the study of the structure and operation of the brain involving neural ne ...

Neutrality (philosophy)

Neutrality is the tendency not to side in a conflict, which may not suggest neutral parties do not have a side or are not a side themselves. In colloquial use neutral can be synonymous with unbiased. However, bias is a favoritism for some side, d ...

Nomothetic

Nomothetic literally means "proposition of the law" and is used in philosophy, psychology, and law with differing meanings. In psychology, nomothetic measures are contrasted to ipsative or idiothetic measures, where nomothetic measures are measur ...

Nomothetic and idiographic

Nomothetic and idiographic are terms used by Neo-Kantian philosopher Wilhelm Windelband to describe two distinct approaches to knowledge, each one corresponding to a different intellectual tendency, and each one corresponding to a different branc ...

Noumenon

In metaphysics, the noumenon is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception. The term noumenon is generally used when contrasted with, or in relation to, the term phenomenon, which refers to anything that ...

NUSAP

NUSAP is a notational system for the management and communication of uncertainty in science for policy, based on five categories for characterizing any quantitative statement: Numeral, Unit, Spread, Assessment and Pedigree. NUSAP was introduced b ...

Object-oriented ontology

In metaphysics, object-oriented ontology is a 21st-century Heidegger-influenced school of thought that rejects the privileging of human existence over the existence of nonhuman objects. This is in contrast to what it calls the "anthropocentrism" ...

On Certainty

On Certainty is a philosophical book composed from notes written by Ludwig Wittgenstein over four separate periods in the eighteen months before his death on 29 April 1951. He left his initial notes at the home of Elizabeth Anscombe, who linked t ...

Opinion

A given opinion may deal with subjective matters in which there is no conclusive finding, or it may deal with facts which are sought to be disputed by the logical fallacy that one is entitled to their opinions. Distinguishing fact from opinion is ...

Outline of epistemology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to epistemology: Epistemology or theory of knowledge – branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. The term was introduced into English by the Scotti ...

Paradigm shift

A paradigm shift, a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn, is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. Kuhn presented his notion of a paradigm shift in hi ...

Philosophical poets

A philosophical poet is an author or scholar who employs poetic devices, styles, or forms to explore subjects common to the field of philosophy. Their writing often addresses questions related to the meaning of life, the nature of being, theories ...

Philosophical theology

Philosophical theology is both a branch and form of theology in which philosophical methods are used in developing or analyzing theological concepts. It therefore includes natural theology as well as philosophical treatments of orthodox and heter ...

Philosophical zombie

The philosophical zombie or p-zombie argument is a thought experiment in philosophy of mind and philosophy of perception that imagines a being that, if it could conceivably exist, logically disproves the idea that physical substance is all that i ...

Philosophy of Baruch Spinoza

Spinozas philosophy encompasses nearly every area of philosophical discourse, including metaphysics, epistemology, political philosophy, ethics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of science. It earned Spinoza an enduring reputation as one of the ...

Philosophy of perception

The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world. Any explicit account of perception requires a commit ...

Philosophy of testimony

In philosophy, testimony includes any words or utterances that are presented as evidence for the claims they express. This definition may be distinguished from the legal notion of testimony in that the speaker does not have to make a declaration ...

Plato's Problem

Platos Problem is the term given by Noam Chomsky to "the problem of explaining how we can know so much" given our limited experience. Chomsky believes that Plato asked how we should account for the rich, intrinsic, common structure of human cogni ...

Plato's unwritten doctrines

Platos so-called unwritten doctrines are metaphysical theories ascribed to him by his students and other ancient philosophers but not clearly formulated in his writings. In recent research, they are sometimes known as Platos principle theory beca ...