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Mimesis criticism

Mimesis criticism is a method of interpreting texts in relation to their literary or cultural models. Mimesis, or imitation, was a widely used rhetorical tool in antiquity up until the 18th centurys romantic emphasis on originality. Mimesis criti ...

Modern rhetoric

Modern rhetoric has gone through many changes since the age of ancient Rome and Greece to fit the societal demands of the time. Kenneth Burke, who is largely credited for defining the notion of modern rhetoric, described modern rhetoric as, "Root ...

Description

Description is the pattern of narrative development that aims to make vivid a place, object, character, or group. Description is one of four rhetorical modes, along with exposition, argumentation, and narration. In practice it would be difficult ...

Rhetorical modes

Rhetorical modes describe the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of language-based communication, particularly writing and speaking. Four of the most common rhetorical modes and their purpose are: narration, description, exposi ...

Mudsill theory

Mudsill theory is the proposition that there must be, and always has been, a lower class or underclass for the upper classes and the rest of society to rest upon. The term derives from a mudsill, the lowest threshold that supports the foundation ...

Narrative criticism

Narrative criticism focuses on the stories a speaker or a writer tells to understand how they help us make meaning out of our daily human experiences. Narrative theory is a means by which we can comprehend how we impose order on our experiences a ...

Nasreddin

Nasreddin or Nasreddin Hodja or Mullah Nasreddin Hooja was a Seljuq satirist, born in Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskisehir Province, present-day Turkey and died in 13th century in Aksehir, near Konya, a capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, i ...

Native American rhetoric

1823 - Johnson v. McIntosh Precedent-setting case between two white parties about property rights to land in America--no Native speaks, though Native interests are affected by the ruling. 1830s - William Appess who delivers" An Indian’s Looking-G ...

Neo-Aristotelianism

Neo-Aristotelianism is a view of literature and rhetorical criticism propagated by the Chicago School - Ronald S. Crane, Elder Olson, Richard McKeon, Wayne Booth, and others - which means. "A view of literature and criticism which takes a plurali ...

New rhetorics

The New Rhetoric is a result of various efforts of bringing back rhetorics from the marginal status it attained by its image and negative connotations of "political lies, corporate spin, long list of Greek and Roman terms for patterns of expressi ...

The New Science

The New Science Italian: La Scienza Nuova pronounced is the major work of Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico. It was first published in 1725 to little success, but has gone on to be highly regarded and influential in the philosophy of history, ...

Orator (Cicero)

Orator was written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the latter part of the year 46 B.C. It his last work on rhetoric, three years before his death. Describing rhetoric, Cicero addresses previous comments on the five canons of rhetoric: Inventio, Dispo ...

Panegyrici Latini

XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman and late antique prose panegyric orations written in Latin. The authors of most of the speeches in the collection are anonymous, bu ...

Parade of horribles

The phrase parade of horribles originally referred to a literal parade of people wearing comic and grotesque costumes, rather like the Philadelphia Mummers Parade. It was a traditional feature of Fourth of July parades in parts of the United Stat ...

Paradiastole

Paradiastole is the reframing of a vice as a virtue, often with the use of euphemism, for example, "Yes, I know it does not work all the time, but that is what makes it interesting." It is often used ironically. In biblical studies, it has come t ...

Parallelism (grammar)

In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure. The application of parallelism affects readabili ...

Parallelism (rhetoric)

Parallelism is a rhetorical device that compounds words or phrases that have equivalent meanings so as to create a definite pattern. This structure is particularly effective when "specifying or enumerating pairs or series of like things". A schem ...

Paraphrase

A paraphrase is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words. The term itself is derived via Latin paraphrasis from Greek παράφρασις, meaning "additional manner of expression". The act of paraphrasing is also called "paraph ...

Paraprosdokian

A paraprosdokian is a figure of speech in which the latter part of a sentence, phrase, or larger discourse is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to reframe or reinterpret the first part. It is frequently used for ...

Parenthesis (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, a parenthesis putting in beside) or parenthetical phrase is an explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage. The parenthesis could be left out and still form grammatically correct text. Parentheses are ...

Paromoiosis

In rhetoric, paromoiosis is parallelism of sound between the words of two clauses approximately equal in size. The similarity of sound can occur at the beginning of the clauses, at the end, in the middle or throughout the clauses. For example: "O ...

Parrhesia

In rhetoric, parrhesia is a figure of speech described as: "to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking". This Ancient Greek word has three different forms, as related by Michel Foucault. Parrhesia is a noun, meaning "free speech". Pa ...

Pars pro toto

Pars pro toto, Latin for "a part for the whole", is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object, place, or concept is used or taken to represent its entirety. It is distinct from a merism, which is a reference to a whole by an enu ...

Pensee unique

Pensee unique is a pejorative expression for mainstream ideological conformism of any kind, almost always opposed to that of the speaker. Originally, it is a French expression and referred to claims that neoliberalism is the only correct way to s ...

Pericope

A pericope in rhetoric is a set of verses that forms one coherent unit or thought, suitable for public reading from a text, now usually of sacred scripture. Also can be used as a way to identify certain themes in a chapter of sacred text. Its imp ...

Periodic sentence

A periodic sentence is a stylistic device employed at the sentence level, described as one that is not complete grammatically or semantically before the final clause or phrase.

Phaedrus (dialogue)

The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. The Phaedrus was presumably composed around 370 BC, about the same time as Platos Republic and Symposium. Alth ...

Phraseology

In linguistics, phraseology is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units, in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not ...

Platitude

A platitude is a trite, meaningless, or prosaic statement, often used as a thought-terminating cliche, aimed at quelling social, emotional, or cognitive unease. Platitudes have been criticized as giving a false impression of wisdom, making it eas ...

Plene scriptum

In orthography, a plene scriptum is a word containing an additional letter, usually one which is superfluous, not normally written in such words, nor needed for the proper comprehension of the word. Today, the term applies mostly to sacred script ...

Polemic

A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position. Polemics are mostly seen in arguments about controversial topics. The practice of such argumentation ...

Politicards

Politicards are a deck of playing cards produced each election year in the United States with 54 caricatures depicting political candidates and prominent political figures. The first Politicards deck was produced in 1971 for the 1972 election by ...

Polyptoton

Polyptoton is the stylistic scheme in which words derived from the same root are repeated. A related stylistic device is antanaclasis, in which the same word is repeated, but each time with a different sense. Another related term is figura etymol ...

Polysyndeton

Polysyndeton comes from the Ancient Greek πολύ poly, meaning "many", and συνδετόν syndeton, meaning "bound together with". A stylistic scheme, polysyndeton is the deliberate insertion of conjunctions into a sentence for the purpose of "slow up th ...

Power of Women

The "Power of Women" is a medieval and Renaissance artistic and literary topos, showing "heroic or wise men dominated by women", presenting "an admonitory and often humorous inversion of the male-dominated sexual hierarchy". It was defined by Sus ...

Pro-war rhetoric

Pro-war rhetoric is rhetoric or propaganda designed to convince its audience that war is necessary. The two main analytical approaches to pro-war rhetoric were founded by Ronald Reid, a Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Mass ...

Procatalepsis

Procatalepsis, also called prolepsis or prebuttal, is a figure of speech in which the speaker raises an objection to their own argument and then immediately answers it. By doing so, they hope to strengthen their argument by dealing with possible ...

Procedural rhetoric

Procedural rhetoric or simulation rhetoric is a rhetorical concept that explains how people learn through the authorship of rules and processes. The theory argues that games can make strong claims about how the world works - not simply through wo ...

Progymnasmata

Progymnasmata are a series of preliminary rhetorical exercises that began in ancient Greece and distended during the Roman Empire. These exercises were implemented by students of rhetoric, who began their schooling between ages twelve and fifteen ...

Pronuntiatio

Pronuntiatio was the discipline of delivering speeches in Western classical rhetoric. It is one of the five canons of classical rhetoric that concern the crafting and delivery of speeches. In literature the equivalent of ancient pronuntiatio is t ...

Prosopopoeia

A prosopopoeia is a rhetorical device in which a speaker or writer communicates to the audience by speaking as another person or object. The term literally derives from the Greek roots prosopon "face, person", and poiein "to make, to do;" it is a ...

Psychobabble

Psychobabble is a form of speech or writing that uses psychological jargon, buzzwords, and esoteric language to create an impression of truth or plausibility. The term implies that the speaker or writer lacks the experience and understanding nece ...

RAS syndrome

RAS syndrome is the use of one or more of the words that make up an acronym in conjunction with the abbreviated form. This means, in effect, repeating one or more words from the acronym. Two common examples are "PIN number" / "VIN number" and "AT ...

Recursive acronym

A recursive acronym is an acronym that refers to itself. The term was first used in print in 1979 in Douglas Hofstadters book Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, in which Hofstadter invents the acronym GOD, meaning "GOD Over Djinn", to ...

Redundancy (linguistics)

In linguistics, redundancy refers to information that is expressed more than once. Examples of redundancies include multiple agreement features in morphology, multiple features distinguishing phonemes in phonology, or the use of multiple words to ...

Rhetoric of health and medicine

The rhetoric of health and medicine is an academic discipline concerning language and symbols in health and medicine. Rhetoric most commonly refers to the persuasive element in human interactions and is often best studied in the specific situatio ...

Rhetoric of science

Rhetoric of science is a body of scholarly literature exploring the notion that the practice of science is a rhetorical activity. It emerged following a number of similarly-oriented disciplines during the late 20th century, including the discipli ...

Rhetoric Society of America

The Rhetoric Society of America is an academic organization for the study of rhetoric. The Societys constitution calls for it to research rhetoric in all relevant fields of study, identify new areas of study, encourage experimentation in teaching ...

Rhetoric to Alexander

The Rhetoric to Alexander is a treatise traditionally attributed to Aristotle. It was written by a Pseudo-Aristotle instead and is now generally believed to be the work of Anaximenes of Lampsacus.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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