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Hypodescent

In societies that regard some races or ethnic groups of people as dominant or superior and others as subordinate or inferior, hypodescent refers to the automatic assignment by the dominant culture of children of a mixed union or sexual relations ...

Inbreeding

Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and othe ...

Irish kinship

Irish kinship is a system of kinship terminology which shows a bifurcate collateral pattern. This system is used by a minority of people living in the Gaeltacht regions of Ireland. Irish kinship terminology varies from English kinship as it focus ...

Iroquois kinship

Iroquois kinship is a kinship system named after the Haudenosaunee people that were previously known as Iroquois and whose kinship system was the first one described to use this particular type of system. Identified by Lewis Henry Morgan in his 1 ...

Jetyata

Jety-ata from their childhoods by their parents, so any Kazakhs aware of their at least their seven ancestors, the peoples under seven generations known as most blood relatives with each others or the most blood close clans. The main reason of kn ...

Kin punishment

Kin punishment is the practice of punishing the family members of someone accused of a crime, either in place of or in addition to the perpetrator. It refers to the principle of a family sharing responsibility for a crime committed by one of its ...

Kin recognition

Kin recognition, also called kin detection, is an organisms ability to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin. In evolutionary biology and psychology, such an ability is presumed to have evolved for inbreeding avoidance. An additional ...

Kinship terminology

Kinship terminology is the system used in languages to refer to the persons to whom an individual is related through kinship. Different societies classify kinship relations differently and therefore use different systems of kinship terminology; f ...

Lineage (anthropology)

A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal lineages can be matrilineal or patrilineal, depending on whether they are traced through mothers or fathers, respectively. Wh ...

Collateral descendant

A lineal descendant, in legal usage, is a blood relative in the direct line of descent – the children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, etc. of a person. In a legal procedure sense, lineal descent refers to the acquisition of estate by inherit ...

Lineal succession (Latter Day Saints)

Lineal succession was a doctrine of the Latter Day Saint movement, whereby certain key church positions are held by right of lineal inheritance. Though lineal succession is now largely abandoned, the offices connected with the practice were those ...

List of DNA-tested mummies

This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies, that may have been DNA tested. Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been as ...

List of gotras

A gotra is a lineage, akin to a family name, but the given name of a family is often different from its gotra, and may reflect the traditional occupation, place of residence or other important family characteristic rather than the lineage. People ...

Mahram

In Islam, a mahram is a member of ones family with whom marriage or sexual intercourse would be considered haram ; from whom purdah, or concealment of the body with hijab, is not obligatory; and who may serve as a legal escort of a woman during j ...

Mamzer

In the Hebrew Bible and Jewish religious law, a mamzer is a person born from certain forbidden relationships or from incest, or the descendant of such a person. Mamzer status is not synonymous with illegitimacy, since it does not include children ...

Marriage

Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. The ...

Marumakkathayam

Marumakkathayam was a system of matrilineal inheritance prevalent in what is now Kerala, India. Descent and the inheritance of property was traced through females. It was followed by all Nair castes, some of the Ambalavasis, Mappilas, and tribal ...

Matrilateral

The term matrilateral describes kin "on the mothers side". Social anthropologists have underlined that even where a social group demonstrates a strong emphasis on one or other line of inheritance matrilineal or patrilineal, relatives who fall out ...

Matrilineal belt

In anthropology, the matrilineal belt is an area in Africa south of the equator centered in south-central Africa where matrilineality is predominant. The matrilineal belt runs diagonally from the Atlantic to the Indian oceans, crossing Angola, Za ...

Matrilineality

Matrilineality is the tracing of kinship through the female line. It may also correlate with a social system in which each person is identified with their matriline – their mothers lineage – and which can involve the inheritance of property and/o ...

Matrilineality in Judaism

Matrilineality in Judaism or matrilineal descent in Judaism is the tracing of Jewish descent through the maternal line. Jewish communities have practiced matrilineal descent from at least early Tannaitic times to Modern times. The origins and dat ...

Matriname

A matrilineal surname or matriname is a family name inherited from ones mother, and maternal grandmother, etc. whose line of descent is called a mother-line, or matriline. The term "matriname" was introduced by Prof. Bryan Sykes in his book The S ...

Milk kinship

Milk kinship, formed during nursing by a non-biological mother, was a form of fostering allegiance with fellow community members. This particular form of kinship did not exclude particular groups, such that class and other hierarchal systems did ...

Moiety (kinship)

In the anthropological study of kinship, a moiety is a descent group that coexists with only one other descent group within a society. In such cases, the community usually has unilineal descent, either patri- or matrilineal, so that any individua ...

Most royal candidate theory

The most royal candidate theory was proposed by Harold Brooks-Baker, that the winning candidate in United States presidential elections will be the candidate with the greatest percentage of "royal blood" in his pedigree. Brooks-Baker promoted it ...

Ethnic nepotism

In sociology, the term ethnic nepotism describes a human tendency for in-group bias or in-group favouritism applied by nepotism for people with the same ethnicity within a multi-ethnic society. The term was coined in the 1960s in the context of t ...

Non-paternity event

In genetics, a non-paternity event is when someone who is presumed to be an individuals father is not in fact the biological father. This presumption may be on the part of the individual, the parents, or the physician. Non-paternity may result fr ...

Nurture kinship

The concept of nurture kinship in the anthropological study of human social relationships highlights the extent to which such relationships are brought into being through the performance of various acts of nurture between individuals. Additionall ...

Omaha kinship

Omaha kinship is the system of terms and relationships used to define family in Omaha tribal culture. Identified by Lewis Henry Morgan in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, the Omaha system is one of the six ...

One-drop rule

The one-drop rule is a social and legal principle of racial classification that was historically prominent in the United States in the 20th century. It asserted that any person with even one ancestor of sub-Saharan African ancestry is considered ...

One-place study

One-place studies are a branch of family history and/or local history with a focus on the entire population of a single road, village or community, not just a single, geographically dispersed family line.

Parentado

Parentado is a principle of kinship tie that was practiced in early Modern Europe. It is Italian for kin. It suggests power that is gained through the alliance of marriage, along with the exchange of dowries and women. Parentado stresses the key ...

Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individuals family membership derives from and is recorded through their fathers lineage. It generally involves the inheritance ...

Pauline Laws

The Pauline Laws are the house laws of the House of Romanov of the Russian Empire. The name comes from the fact that they were initially established by Emperor Paul I of Russia in 1797. Paul I abolished Peter the Greats law which allowed each rei ...

Pedigree collapse

In genealogy, pedigree collapse describes how reproduction between two individuals who share an ancestor causes the number of distinct ancestors in the family tree of their offspring to be smaller than it could otherwise be. Robert C. Gunderson c ...

Phratry

In ancient Greece, a phratry ατρία, "brotherhood", "kinfolk", derived from φρατήρ meaning "brother") was a social division of the Greek tribe. Little is known about the role they played in Greek social life, but they existed from the Greek Dark A ...

Polish heraldry

Polish heraldry refers to the study of coats of arms in the lands of historical Poland. It focuses on specifically Polish traits of heraldry. The term is also used to refer to the Polish heraldic system, as opposed to systems used elsewhere, nota ...

Pravaras

In Brahmin Hindu culture, a Pravara is a particular Brahmins descent from a rishi who belonged to their gotra. The Pravara has been extensively used in identifying one s ancestry and thus giving salutations to the listener. In vedic ritual, the i ...

Progenitor

In genealogy, the progenitor is the – sometimes legendary – founder of a family, line of descent, clan or tribe, noble house or people group. Genealogy understands a progenitor to be the earliest recorded ancestor of a consanguineous family group ...

Prohibited degree of kinship

In law, a prohibited degree of kinship refers to a degree of consanguinity and sometimes affinity between persons that results in certain actions between them being illegal. Two major examples of prohibited degrees are found in incest and nepotis ...

Puisne

Puisne from late Latin post-, "after", and natus, "born") is a legal term of art obsolete in many jurisdictions and, when current, used mainly in British English meaning "inferior in rank". The word became in the 18th and 19th century legal world ...

Rada (fiqh)

Radāʿ or ridāʿa", "breastfeeding") is a technical term in Sunni Islamic jurisprudence meaning "the suckling which produces the legal impediment to marriage of foster-kinship", and refers to the fact that under Sunni jurispurdence, a wet nurse is ...

Recognition (family law)

Recognition is the process in some jurisdictions whereby a man is recognised as the father of a child in situations where there is no presumption of paternity, generally due to the mother being unwed. Historically due to the Roman law principle o ...

Royal descent

A royal descent is a genealogical line of descent from a past or present monarch. Both geneticists and genealogists have attempted to estimate the percentage of living people with royal descent. From a genetical perspective, the number of unprova ...

Sibling

A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common. A full sibling is a first-degree relative. A male sibling is a brother, and a female sibling is a sister. In most societies throughout the world, siblings often gro ...

Sibling-in-law

Sibling-in-law includes the brother-in-law and the sister-in-law. It refers to the sibling of ones spouse, or the spouse of ones sibling, or taken one step further by referring to the spouse of ones spouses sibling. All of these are relations whi ...

Sister

A sister is a woman or girl who shares one or more parents with another. The male counterpart is a brother. Although the term typically refers to a familial relationship, it is sometimes used endearingly to refer to non-familial relationships. A ...

Gitel Steed

Gitel Poznanski Steed was an American cultural anthropologist known for her research in India 1950–52 involving ethnological work in three villages to study the complex detail of their social structure. She supplemented her research with thousand ...

Sudanese kinship

Sudanese kinship, also referred to as the descriptive system, is a kinship system used to define family. Identified by Lewis Henry Morgan in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, the Sudanese system is one of th ...

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