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Ulmus minor Sarniensis

The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor Sarniensis, known variously as Guernsey Elm, Jersey Elm, Wheatley Elm, or Southampton Elm, was first described by MacCulloch in 1815 from trees on Guernsey, and was planted in the Royal Horticultural Societys ga ...

Ulmus wallichiana subsp. xanthoderma

The elm Ulmus wallichiana subsp. xanthoderma was identified by Melville and Heybroek after the latters expedition to the Himalaya in 1960. The tree is of more western distribution than subsp. wallichiana, from Afghanistan to Kashmir.

Urtica dioica subsp. galeopsifolia

Urtica dioica subsp. galeopsifolia, the fen nettle or stingless nettle, is a herbaceous perennial plant found in Europe. It is considered to be either a subspecies of stinging nettle, or a species in its own right: Urtica galeopsifolia. Unlike mo ...

Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis

Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis, commonly known as southern shy featherflower is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a slender shrub with one openly branched main ...

Felis margarita thinobia

Felis margarita thinobia, known as the Turkestan sand cat, Arabian sand cat, and Pakistan sand cat, is a sand cat subspecies native to deserts in the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Pakistan and Central Asia.

Egyptian wolf

The Egyptian wolf had an unresolved taxonomic identity and was formerly known as the Egyptian jackal. Throughout much of the 20th century, the animal was classed as a subspecies of golden jackal, Canis aureus lupaster. Notice was however taken by ...

Senegalese wolf

The Senegalese wolf, also known as the grey jackal, slender jackal or anthus, is the nominate subspecies of the African golden wolf native to Senegal.

Variegated wolf

The variegated wolf, also known as the Nubian wolf, is a subspecies of African golden wolf native to Sudan and Somalia. It is smaller and more lightly built than the Egyptian wolf, standing 38 cm at the shoulder, and 102 cm in length. Compared wi ...

European jackal

The European jackal, also known as the Caucasian jackal or reed wolf is a subspecies of golden jackal native to Southeast Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. It was first described in 1833 by French naturalist Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire duri ...

Sri Lankan jackal

The Sri Lankan jackal, also known as the Southern Indian jackal is a subspecies of golden jackal native to southern India and Sri Lanka. On the Asian mainland, the Sri Lankan jackal occurs in the whole southern part of the Indian peninsula, from ...

Subspecies of Canis lupus

There are 38 subspecies of Canis lupus listed in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World. These subspecies were named over the past 250 years, and since their naming a number of them have gone extinct. The nominate subspecies is the E ...

Alaskan tundra wolf

The Alaskan tundra wolf, also known as the barren-ground wolf, is a North American subspecies of gray wolf native to the barren grounds of the Arctic coastal tundra region. This subspecies only inhabits the tundra regions along the Arctic coast o ...

Arabian wolf

The Arabian wolf is a subspecies of gray wolf which lives on the Arabian peninsula. It is the smallest-sized wolf known. It is a desert-adapted wolf that normally lives in small groups and is omnivorous, eating carrion and garbage as well as smal ...

Arctic wolf

The Arctic wolf, also known as the white wolf or polar wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to Canadas Queen Elizabeth Islands, from Melville Island to Ellesmere Island. It is a medium-sized subspecies, distinguished from the northwestern wo ...

Austro-Hungarian wolf

The Austro-Hungarian wolf, also called the reed wolf, is a proposed subspecies of the gray wolf that is thought to have once inhabited Hungary and eastern Austria. Its subspecies status is uncertain, as there are few records and no uncontroversia ...

Baffin Island wolf

The Baffin Island wolf, also known as the Baffin Island tundra wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf which resides exclusively on Baffin Island and several nearby islands. It was not formally recognized as a subspecies until 1943, when it was given ...

Bernards wolf

Bernards wolf, also known as the Banks Island wolf, the Banks Island tundra wolf, and the Victoria Island wolf, is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf that was limited to Banks and Victoria Island of the Arctic Archipelago. This wolf is recogn ...

Cascade mountain wolf

The Cascade Mountains wolf is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf that was once found in the Pacific Northwest. The wolf became extinct in 1940. It was originally identified as a separate species by Richardson in 1839 and from other wolves in ...

Eurasian wolf

The Eurasian wolf, also known as the common wolf or Middle Russian forest wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to Europe and the forest and steppe zones of the former Soviet Union. It was once widespread throughout Eurasia prior to the Middl ...

Florida black wolf

The Florida black wolf, also known as the Florida wolf and the black wolf, is an extinct subspecies of Canis lupus that lived in Florida. This subspecies became extinct in 1908 due to crowding out of its habitat and hunting.

Greenland wolf

The Greenland wolf is a subspecies of gray wolf that is native to Greenland. Historically it was heavily persecuted, but today it is fully protected and about 90% of the wolfs range falls within the boundaries of the Northeast Greenland National ...

Gregorys wolf

Gregorys wolf, also known as the Mississippi Valley wolf, is a subspecies of the gray wolf. It was declared extinct in 1980. It once roamed the regions in and around the lower Mississippi River basin.

Iberian wolf

The Iberian wolf also known as Spanish wolf, is a proposed subspecies of grey wolf that inhabits the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. It is home to 2.200-2.700 wolves which have been iso ...

Indian wolf

The Indian wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf that ranges from Southwest Asia to the Indian Subcontinent. It is intermediate in size between the Tibetan and Arabian wolf, and lacks the formers luxuriant winter coat due to it living in warmer condi ...

Interior Alaskan wolf

The North American wolf Canis lupus pambasileus is a subspecies of gray wolf that is referred to as the Interior Alaskan wolf in the United States and the Yukon wolf in Canada where it ranges in adjacent parts of British Columbia and Northwest Te ...

Italian wolf

The Italian wolf, also known as the Apennine wolf, is a proposed subspecies of grey wolf native to the Italian Peninsula. It inhabits the Apennine Mountains and the Western Alps, though it is undergoing expansion towards the north and east. As of ...

Japanese wolf

The Japanese wolf is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf that was once endemic to the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū in the Japanese archipelago. It is also known as the Honshū wolf. Its binomial name derives from the Greek Hodos and p ...

Labrador wolf

The Labrador wolf is a subspecies of gray wolf native to Labrador and northern Quebec. It has been described as ranging in color from dark grizzly-gray to almost white, and of being closely related to the Newfoundland wolf. This wolf is recognize ...

Mackenzie River wolf

The Mackenzie River wolf is a subspecies of gray wolf which is found in Canadas southern portion of Northwest Territories. Not much has been published on Canis lupus mackenzii but one of the most comprehensive studies was done in 1954 by W.A. Ful ...

Manitoba wolf

The Manitoba wolf, also known as the grey-white wolf, is an extinct subspecies of gray wolf that roamed in the southern Northwest Territories, northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and south-central Manitoba. This wolf is recognized as a subspecies of ...

Mogollon mountain wolf

The Mogollon mountain wolf is an extinct subspecies of gray wolf whose range once included southern and western Texas and northeastern Mexico. It is darker than its more northern cousins, and has a highly arched frontal bone.

Mongolian wolf

The Mongolian wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf which is native to Mongolia, Northern and Central China, Korea, Ussuri region Russia.

Northern Rocky Mountain wolf

The northern Rocky Mountain wolf is a subspecies of gray wolf native to the northern Rocky Mountains. It is a light-colored, medium to large-sized subspecies with a narrow, flattened frontal bone. The subspecies was initially listed as Endangered ...

Northwestern wolf

The northwestern wolf, also known as the Mackenzie Valley wolf, Rocky Mountain wolf, Alaskan timber wolf, or Canadian timber wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf in western North America. It ranges from Alaska, the upper Mackenzie River Valley; sou ...

Sicilian wolf

The Sicilian wolf is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf that was once endemic to Sicily. It was paler than the mainland Italian wolf and comparable in size to the extant Arabian wolf and extinct Japanese wolf. The subspecies reportedly went e ...

Steppe wolf

The steppe wolf, also known as the Caspian Sea wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to the Caspian steppes, the steppe regions of the Caucasus, the lower Volga region, southern Kazakhstan north to the middle of the Emba, and the steppe regio ...

Tibetan wolf

The Tibetan wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf which is native to China in the areas of Gansu, Qinghai and Tibet Autonomous region. It is distinguished by its genetic markers using whole genome sequencing to indicate that it is the most geneticall ...

Tundra wolf

The tundra wolf, also known as the Turukhan wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to Eurasias tundra and forest-tundra zones from Finland to the Kamchatka Peninsula. It was first described in 1792 by Robert Kerr, who described it as living ar ...

List of Apis mellifera subspecies

Apis mellifera macedonica, classified by Ruttner, 1988 - Macedonian honey bee Northern Greece Macedonia and Thrace, North Macedonia. Possibly synonymous with A. m. artemisia Russian steppe honey bee as described by Engel, 1999. Apis mellifera rut ...

List of Eurasian nuthatch subspecies

The Eurasian nuthatch is a small passerine bird found throughout temperate Asia and in Europe. There are more than 20 subspecies, but the precise number depends on how small differences between populations are evaluated. This article follows the ...

Panthera tigris tigris

Panthera tigris is a tiger subspecies in continental Asia comprising the following tiger populations: Caspian tiger - inhabited Western and Central Asia Indochinese tiger - inhabits Indochina, with the exception of the Malayan Peninsula Malayan t ...

Dichotomous preferences

In economics, dichotomous preferences are preference relations that divide the set of alternatives to two subsets: "Good" versus "Bad". From ordinal utility perspective, DP means that for every two alternatives X, Y {\displaystyle X,Y}: X ⪯ Y ⟺ X ...

Exponential utility

In economics and finance, exponential utility is a specific form of the utility function, used in some contexts because of its convenience when risk is present, in which case expected utility is maximized. Formally, exponential utility is given b ...

Fractionally subadditive

A set function is called fractionally subadditive if it is the maximum of several additive set functions. This valuation class was defined, and termed XOS, by Noam Nisan, in the context of combinatorial auctions. The term fractionally-subadditive ...

Gorman polar form

Gorman polar form is a functional form for indirect utility functions in economics. Imposing this form on utility allows the researcher to treat a society of utility-maximizers as if it consisted of a single representative individual. Gorman show ...

Gross substitutes (indivisible items)

In economics, gross substitutes is a class of utility functions on indivisible goods. An agent is said to have a GS valuation if, whenever the prices of some items increase and the prices of other items remain constant, the agents demand for the ...

Homothetic preferences

In consumer theory, a consumers preferences are called homothetic if they can be represented by a utility function which is homogeneous of degree 1. For example, in an economy with two goods x, y {\displaystyle x,y}, homothetic preferences can be ...

Indirect utility function

In economics, a consumers indirect utility function v {\displaystyle v} gives the consumers maximal attainable utility when faced with a vector p {\displaystyle p} of goods prices and an amount of income w {\displaystyle w}. It reflects both the ...

Isoelastic utility

In economics, the isoelastic function for utility, also known as the isoelastic utility function, or power utility function is used to express utility in terms of consumption or some other economic variable that a decision-maker is concerned with ...

King–Plosser–Rebelo preferences

In economics, King–Plosser–Rebelo preferences are a particular functional form of utility that is used in many macroeconomic models and dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models. Having originally been proposed in an article that appeared in ...